This dataset will be enriched with in-depth interviews of people involved in communicating the incident. Through the combination of quantitative and qualitative methods we seek to find a comprehensive model of information flow around environmental disasters with new insights concerning time and rhythm, important citizen as well as institutional actors and the interdependence of mass and social media.
Another result is the normative development of a social media standard procedure guide that gives recommendations about how rescue organizations should communicate through social media in the case of environmental emergencies. Introduction 2. Poverty, Vulnerability and Risk 3. The Philippines: poverty, urbanization and disasters 4. Global and local politics of aid in the context of Typhoon Yolanda 7. Share this Title.
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View Cart. Offline Computer — Download Bookshelf software to your desktop so you can view your eBooks with or without Internet access. The country you have selected will result in the following: Product pricing will be adjusted to match the corresponding currency. The title will be removed from your cart because it is not available in this region. We first draft a CBA based upon the environmental tax, then we show the transmission channels through the multiplier according to tourist expenditures in , and finally, we compare with the expected multiplier gained from CBA.
Considering the poverty of our data, we use a rough-and-ready model. In Haiti data are not available over a long period of time.
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That is the reason why our CBA is rough-and-ready and also why we extrapolate future impacts. The tax generates costs such as commissionning to collectors, corruption.. The equation 1 describes the fiscal benefit which is the amount of tax collected minus the costs supposed to be fixed at first hypothesis, It is of the following form :. It may be communication, training, flooding warning… Then, it could be supposed a very rational hypothesis based upon work or utility function of tourist decision as they are sensitive to environment and specially risk averse.
So, a link between flow of tourists and the environmental plan may be established. This link is very simply formalized by equation 3. We posit a simple and linear relation equation 4. Althought idealistic it is quite irrealistic cause the tourist flow cannot grow indefinitiley. In such a case, the tax generates spillovers instead of well being because the tourist is too important.guifreetadrespa.tk
Remote Sensing for Natural or Man-made Disasters and Environmental Changes
More important, via this simple model we show that this environmental policy is twofold : it develops security for people while enhancing growth through tourism. This transformation of CBA allows us to show that risk management is an economic tool as well as a political one in the realm of well being. In order to eliminate the exponential flow and its probable negative effects as mentioned above, the model has been complexified into a system of equations where costs progress with the tourist flow, and where they are also limited by C, which is in fact, the maximum of tax to be collected, equations 12 From equation 8 becoming now equation It does not grow exponentially, avoiding thus environmental problems linked to expanded flows.
In the following Tabs. They show the progressive character of a family of flow curves for a given C. It is due to the differential equation which is unsteady. The curves Tab. In order to show the multiplier effect of flow coming from the environmental policy. Tax may contribute to develop a feeling of security perceived both by the residents and those outside such as not only tourists but also foreign investors.
Finally, from the view point of good governance, it also may be a strong signal towards the international community given by Hait still considered as the worsened governed country in the hemisphere. Hurricanes and storms during summer have highlightened the challenges associated with reducing losses. The temporary closing of hotels, roads repairing among others, meant fewer visitors to Haiti leading to loss of income not only in tourism but also in all the different sectors of the economy.
As a matter of fact, the vulnerability of the tourism sector and others are not confined to their own capital stock. Other kinds of damages do affect the economy when they apply to roads, airports or harbours. Regarding Haiti one might be tempted to think that much of the damages were the consequences of deforestation, anarchic building, heavy rurbanization in Port-au-Prince, e.
Dealing with risks in decision-making processess is everywhere, and moreover in the Caribbean, the cornerstone of policies aiming at sustainable development. The concept of risk is central Bouma and al , and it has to be incorporated into the estimation of social and economic effects. One faces a context which is both uncertain and antagonistic. And decisions have to be taken within that very context. Thus two questions, at least, arise.
What is risk? In order to answer these questions one must consider various aspects. They are social, economical, technical, financial, political and institutional at the same time within a social CBA framework where at final psychologic and subjectivism do influence the decisions. In a few words, it is about to bargain between efficiency and equity. So, the typical problem is how to estimae the value of one human life VSL Stavins, Several questions come on the ground.
How to deal with moral objections? How to operate beteween individual and group risk? If the State is in charge of the common well being, the agents need to be informed.
PAHO/WHO Emergencies News - Solid Waste Management in Disaster Situations
They apply for transparency. So, the question is the following : is protection a public concern? When does it become a full private matter? Data required are those related to the damages linked to each sort of risk with a probability rule for each of them. Statistic rules used include an actualization rate.
As an example, suppose a risk leading to a damage D with a given initial and yearly probability of p , liable to occur each year at time t. The actualization rate is given by i , and the probable updated damage at year 1 is given by the following equation :. Thus, dialogue with the different agents is crucial.
At least, when the Total Economic Value TEV is found, it provides an all-encompassing measure of the economic value of any environmental asset. It does not encompass values such as intrinsic ones. Benefits correspond to the measures aiming at risk reducing. Costs are the investments linked to the measures implemented and they include functionning expenditures. The cost-benefit relation may also be determined according differents ways.
By comparaing damages dismishing when a risk occurs, by testing scenarii or by applying economical tools. This latter, applied to flooding or any one else must go on the six following steps that we do not fully describe in this paper :. Inventorization of the effects to be monetarized,. But more important, risk and its perception can influence the outcomes of techniques that allow imputing a value on the possible consequences of flooding step 2.
They relate to credit, loans or emergency funds provided either by the different World Bank funds or by IDB for both ex ante and ex post measures. But it is also well known that to be efficient the more efficient structures have to be determined within a CBA perspective. That also means that when it is about to define whether risk reducing is or not a public concern it is time to drive concertation by including the private sector through public-private partnerships clearly identified.
To conclude this paper we could say that the caribbean countries are all of them deeply concerned by risk and disaster management which relate to geography, economy and external dependency. Haiti of course faces the same problem and if we would make one recommandation, on one hand it would concern the recurring problem related to property rights.
This must be prioritized through a strong legal and organizational framework as an effective and efficient EIA depends upon it. On the other hand, such an attitude could be perceived both by residents and foreigners as a strong signal towards governance and participative democracy. But two measures appear critical :. First reinforce statistics institutions. When trying to implement environmental policies, long data time series are of high importance. As an example, for evalutating flooding risk occurrence in the future one needs to observe the past floods events over decades.
They will serve then for establishing probabilities in intensity and time occurrence alson based on GIS maps. Secondly, define a strong and formalized property rights for lands. It is useful for identitying owners who, eventually, could be involved either in an environmental policy or in agricultural policies. This last measure is of great importance to make foreign investors feel secure when investing in the country. But behind economics, we find behavioural management. Risk management must be envisaged as a win-win game for the economy and the environment.
That is what we tried to demonstrate by the relationship between tourism for financing environment, and environment for nurturing growth. Baumol W. Oates Bouma, J. Coase, R.
Solid Waste Management in Disaster Situations
Goulder, L. Stavins Granvorka, C. Haneman, M. Howe, C. Anderson and P. Hills ed. Kaldor, N. Kuhn, H. Tucker